Biblical Criticism, including Form Criticism, Tradition Criticism, Higher Criticism, etc.
Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques used mainly by mainline and liberal Christian theologians to study the meaning of Biblical passages. It uses general historical principles, and is based primarily on reason rather than revelation or faith.
Form criticism is an analysis of literary documents, particularly the Bible, to discover earlier oral traditions (stories, legends, myths, etc.) upon which they were based.
Tradition criticism is an analysis of the Bible, concentrating on how religious traditions have grown and changed over the time span during which the text was written.
Higher criticism is "the study of the sources and literary methods employed by the biblical authors."
Lower criticism is "the discipline and study of the actual wording" of the Bible; a quest for textual purity and understanding